Teaching and Learning Resources

Self-Paced Modules

The self-paced courses listed below can be accessed here. Log in with the user name faculty and the password nc-net. Once connected, you can view the courses alphabetically by title.

  • Active and Problem-based Learning – Robeson Community College
  • Adapting Curriculum and Materials (ESL) – Wake Technical Community College
  • Assessing College Programs – Central Carolina Community College
  • Assessment of Critical Thinking and Item Writing - Johnston Community College
  • Assessment and Documentation of Core Competencies – Central Piedmont Community College
  • Best Practices in Teaching and Learning for the Community College Classroom – NC-NET Western Center
  • Blueprints for Student Success – Cleveland Community College
  • Cross-Cultural Communication – Wake Technical Community College
  • Contextual Teaching and Learning – Mitchell Community College
  • Copyright and Fair Use Guidelines for Educators - Wake Technical Community College
  • Developing Integrated Learning Activities (Train-the-Trainer) - Forsyth Technical Community College
  • Exploring Registered Apprenticeships - Durham Technical Community College
  • General Education Competencies/Core Skills – South Piedmont Community College
  • Instructional Methods and Strategies (ESL) and How to Do Peer Review – Wake Technical Community College
  • Problem-based Learning in Vocational Programs – Cleveland Community College
  • Quick Instructional Design – Haywood Community College
  • Revisiting Academic Honesty – Haywood Community College
  • Second Language Acquisition – Wake Technical Community College
  • Strategies for Test Development and Item Writing - Johnston Community College
  • Student Learning Outcomes for Technical Programs – Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute
  • Syllabus Preparation and Required Knowledge - Wake Technical Community College
  • Teaching Strategies for Master Teachers – South Piedmont Community College
  • That's Not What I Signed Up For: Teaching College Classes to High School Students – Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College
  • Utilizing Formative Assessment in Online Learning to Increase Student Retention – Wake Technical Community College
  • Writing Across the Curriculum – NC-NET Western Center

Additional NC-NET self-paced courses can be accessed by clicking here and logging in with the user name faculty and the password nc-net.

  • ESL Civics Self-Directed Learning – Durham Technical Community College
  • Exploring Registered Apprenticeships – Durham Technical Community College
  • HOSTS (Revised) Helping Our Students Succeed – Johnston Community College
  • New Instructor Orientation Template – Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College
  • Professional Transitions (ACA 220) – Wake Technical Community College

Instructional Resources from NC Community Colleges

Related Internet Resources

Click on the headings below to view annotated lists of related web resources.

Active Learning

"A longitudinal study of engineering student performance and retention vs. comparisons with traditionally-taught students."
Felder, R., Felder, G., and Dietz, E.J. (1998). Journal of Engineering Education, 87(4), 469-480. Research on cooperative, active learning
http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Papers/long5.html

"From teaching to learning, part III: lectures and approaches to active learning."
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 21 (1). D.C. Seeler, D.C., Turnwald, G.H., and Bull, K.S. (1994). Their work explores some of the practical issues related to active learning and discusses ways in which the instructor can improve upon the lecture in order to increase student learning and activity. Methods include questioning, modified lecture formats, brainstorming and tests and quizzes.
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVME/V21-1/Seeler1.html

"Reflection Activities for Use with Service Learning"
Article based on Robert Bringle and Julie Hatcher's "Reflection in Service Learning: Making Meaning of Experience" (1999) as well as examples from community college faculty around the country. The activities presented here have been adapted by Diane Sloan, Miami-Dade College, and Toni S. Hartsfield, formerly of Bellevue Community College.
http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Resources/aaccprograms/horizons/Documents/reflection_3.pdf

Active Learning for the College Classroom
Provides a survey of a wide variety of active learning techniques which can be used to supplement rather than replace lectures. The authors, Donald Paulson and Jennifer Faust present techniques for use with individual students (without interrupting the whole class) as well as techniques for use with small groups or the whole class.
http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/index.htm

Brainstorming Before Speaking Tasks
Brainstorming is an activity used to generate ideas in small groups. The purpose is to generate as many ideas as possible within a specified time period. These ideas are not evaluated until the end, and a wide range of ideas is often produced. Each idea produced does not need to be usable. Instead, initial ideas can be viewed as a starting pint for more workable ideas. The principle of brainstorming is that you need a lot of ideas to get good ideas. The Internet TESL Journal's article "Brainstorming Before Speaking Tasks" describes research on how brainstorming affects learning and also gives practical implementation tips.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Cullen-Brainstorming

Case Studies in Science: A Novel Method of Science Education
Clyde Freeman Herreid describes case studies as educational stories used to teach students about their field
http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/curriculum.html

Center for Teaching and Learning
Examples of how to incorporate active learning are explained on this website. The author provides illustrations of several types of paired activities: think/pair/share, question and answer pairs, and note-checking pairs. Guidelines for using paired activities are also included. Finally, there are sections on planning an active learning activity and keys to success.
http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/teachlearn/resources/active/index.html

Center for Values and Service
The website of the Center for Values and Service, Office of Service-Learning, Loyola College--contains course syllabi, information on locating community partners, a course planning guide for faculty, useful agreement forms.
http://www.loyola.edu/department/ccsj/servicelearning.aspx

Collaborative Learning Structures and Techniques
This article describes a number of strategies for using collaborative learning.
http://www.gdrc.org/kmgmt/c-learn/methods.html#top

Concept Mapping
"Concept Mapping," by Steven Hale at Georgia Perimeter College, describes the steps of constructing concept maps and give some examples as illustration.
http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~shale/humanities/composition/handouts/concept.html

Constructivism
University of Colorado at Denver's Constructivism website houses links to a comprehensive list of readings on the educational theory of constructivism and its main proponents. Related concepts: cooperative, collaborative, active, experiential learning
http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/constructivism.html

Contextual Teaching and Learning
Robert Berns and Patricia Erickson provide an overview of contextual teaching and learning and various approaches to implementing it. Related concepts: active, experiential, career and technical education, CTE
http://tinyurl.com/ryveag

Educational Simulation Website
The Educational Simulation Website describes three broad types of simulations and gives related links: Group or Meeting-- Facility Simulation-- Virtual Reality.
http://www.creativeteachingsite.com/simtypes.htm

Experiential Learning
Experiential learning is primarily significant in its emphasis on personal involvement and personal acquisition of knowledge and skills through relevant experiences. C. R. Rogers differentiates between "cognitive (meaningless) and experiential (significant)" learning. This concise discussion presents the main characteristics of experiential learning, an approach Rogers sees as particularly applicable to adults. It includes references and links to relevant sites.
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/experiental-learning.html

Facilitating Discussion: A Brief Guide
By Katherine K. Gottschalk, Director of Freshman Writing Seminars in Cornell University's John S. Knight Writing Program, provides helpful insight on: creating rapport, encouraging participation, facilitating discussion, getting students to talk to and argue with each other, using small groups, other ideas for invigorating your class.
http://www.arts.cornell.edu/knight_institute/publicationsprizes/Facilitating_Discussion06.pdf

Faculty Handbook for Service-Learning
This handbook from the University of Maryland describes service learning and provides information and tools to help faculty incorporate service-learning within existing courses or create new service-learning courses. Use links on the left to explore the site.
http://thestamp.umd.edu/student_involvement/lcsl/academic/faculty_service-learning

Getting Started with Cooperative Learning
A sample academic controversy exercise developed for an engineering class by Karl Smith
http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/archive/cl1/CL/story/smithkar/TSKSD.htm

Implementing Service Learning in Higher Education
By Robert Bringle and Julie Hatcher. From the Journal of Higher Education, April 1996. Includes a Comprehensive Action Plan for Service-Learning (CAPSL) developed by Campus Compact as a model for institutional change and renewal focusing on four core constituencies: the college, the students, the faculty, and the community.
http://www.compact.org/advancedtoolkit/pdf/bringle-all.pdf

Interactive-engagement vs. traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses
Hake, Richard R., "Interactive-engagement vs. traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses." (1998). American Journal of Physics, 66, 64- 74.
http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~sdi/ajpv3i.pdf

Jigsaw Classroom
The jigsaw technique was first developed in the early 1970s by Elliot Aronson
http://www.jigsaw.org/overview.htm

National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
Visit the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science for informative articles on how to develop and use case studies as a teaching tool. Don't miss "What Makes a Good Case?"
http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/teaching/publications/

Navigating the Bumpy Road to Student-Centered Instruction
In their very helpful article "Navigating the Bumpy Road to Student-Centered Instruction," Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent explore the change from a lecture-based classroom to a more student-centered learning environment
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Resist.html

On Student-Centered Learning and Active Participation
In Part V, Section 1 there is a discussion of student-centered learning and active participation. Included are the role of the teacher, encouraging active participation, and setting expectations.
http://wr.english.fsu.edu/First-Year-Composition/The-Teachers-Guide

Problem Solving
The National Institute for Science Education at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, offers problem-solving models including Structured Problem-Solving, Discovery Method, Think-Pair-Square, Drill-Review Pairs, and Thinking Aloud Pair Problem-Solving
http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/archive/cl1/CL/doingcl/DCL1.asp

Problem-Based Learning in Business Education: Curriculum Design and Implementation Issues
A journal article in which John E. Stinson and Richard G. Milter discuss their eleven years experience using a problem-based approach.
http://www.ouwb.ohiou.edu/this_is_ouwb/papers/paper3.htm

Problem-based Learning, especially in the context of large classes
The website of the chemical engineering department at McMaster University provides excellent resources for facilitating problem-based learning--learning in which "the problem drives the learning....that is, before students learn some knowledge they are given a problem. The problem is posed so that the students discover that they need to learn some new knowledge before they can solve the problem." Included as a resource is an electronic copy of D. R. Woods' book, Problem-based Learning: Helping Your Students Gain the Most from PBL—written for teachers to give them the process for implementing their personal style of PBL for their environment.
http://chemeng.mcmaster.ca/problem-based-learning

Questioning Strategies
Questions should play an important role in every classroom--both students' questions and teachers' questions. Teachers can create an active learning environment by encouraging students to ask and answer questions. This excerpt from the TA Handbook on the University of Delaware's Center for Teaching Excellence website discusses how teachers should ask questions and how to encourage students to ask questions.
http://cte.udel.edu/publications/handbook-graduate-assistants/questioning-strategies.html

Questioning Techniques for Active Learning
The article "Questioning Techniques for Active Learning" by C. M. Wang and Grace Ong provides tips on asking good questions as well as links to other issues of the online journal Ideas on Teaching, Center for the Development of Teaching and Learning, National University of Singapore, 2000.
http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/Ideas/iot2.htm

Role Playing/Simulation
In this article by Patricia J. Tomkins, the role playing/simulation method is analyzed using the formats of approach, design, and procedure.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Tompkins-RolePlaying.html

Service Learning in Community Colleges
This AACC site on Service Learning provides many valuable resources and reports on service learning based on nearly 20 years of research.
http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Resources/aaccprograms/horizons/Pages/default.aspx

Service-Learning Contract Example
An example student-faculty-agency contract from Loyola College's Center for Values and Service.
http://www.loyola.edu/department/ccsj/servicelearning/fsa.aspx

Shumer's Self-Assessment for Service Learning
A self-reflective system for professionals in the service-learning and experiential learning fields. What follows is a series of instruments and analysis worksheets arranged to help individuals evaluate their current service-learning initiatives to improve and strengthen them. December, 2000 by Rob Shumer, for the Center for Experiential and Service-Learning, Department of Work, Community, and Family Education, College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota
http://www.nylc.org/sites/nylc.org/files/files/113ShumerAssess.pdf

Structured Academic Controversy
The site provides a detailed description of the instructional use of structured academic controversy. The "how-to" section contains videos of the practice in action.
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/teaching_methods/sac/index.html

Teaching Tips III: suggestions and ideas on teaching
The website for Cleveland State University's Center for Teaching and Learning includes a section on "Active Learning for Almost Any Size Class" with ideas for three alternative lecture formats
http://www.csuohio.edu/offices/teachingexcellence/tchtips3.2.html

The Case Method of Teaching Science
The University of Buffalo's website for Case Study Teaching in Science is a goldmine of links to essays and articles about how to use case studies in the classroom.
http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/teaching/

The Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence
This site has links to numerous techniques for actively engaging your students in learning. The specific resources listed under Large Class Resources provide a summary of the strategy, ease of use rating, class size, student level, more details about how to implement the strategy, references and list of core competencies. Don't let the Large Class title deter you, many of the strategies work with as few as 3 students.
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/Tools/Large/

Twenty Ways to Make Lectures More Participatory
Lectures play a vital role in teaching. Here are twenty ways to make lectures more participatory. Adapted from Participatory Lectures, Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, 1992.
http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/html/icb.topic58474/TFTlectures.html

Assessment

"Fair Assessment Practices: Giving Students Equitable Opportunities to Demonstrate Learning"
Key concepts: assessments, learning outcomes, measures
http://www.elcamino.edu/administration/vpsca/docs/assessment/FairAssessmentPractices_Suskie.pdf

A Revised Peer Assessment Instrument
"A Revised Peer Assessment Instrument," by Michael Toth and Jawad Khan at Portland State University and includes the peer assessment form.
http://www.pdx.edu/sites/www.pdx.edu.cae/files/facfocfall00.pdf

Alternatives to Traditional Testing
This page lists a variety of assessments as alternatives to a formal final exam.
http://teaching.berkeley.edu/alternatives-traditional-testing

Assessing Student Performance and Understanding
"Integration of Disciplines: Assessing Student Performance and Understanding" briefly covers authentic assessment, performance assessment, criterion-referenced assessment, systematic observation, portfolios and process folios, and journals.
http://oregonstate.edu/instruction/ed555/zone5/zone5hom.htm

Assessing Students and Yourself Using the One-Minute Paper and Observing Students Working Cooperatively
"Assessing Students and Yourself Using the One-Minute Paper and Observing Students Working Cooperatively" by Dr. Theodore Panitz and Patricia Panitz
http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedsarticles/Assessment.htm

Assessments that Promote Learning
"Assessments that Promote Learning" by John Lowe explains how to build student self-assessment (reflection on their own learning) into a course. Topics include: self-assessment, reflection, learning, questionnaire, exam, problem, lab write-up, performance analysis.
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/Assessment_That_Promotes_Learning.pdf

Authentic Assessment Toolbox
"Authentic Assessment Toolbox" is Jon Mueller's comprehensive site on the subject, explaining what authentic assessment is, the step-by-step design of authentic assessments (including rubrics), defining terms, and much more! Key concepts: rubrics, authentic assessments, portfolios, tasks, standards.
http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/index.htm

Classroom Assessment Techniques
An overview of Classroom Assessment Techniques is provided along with the characteristics of CATs, assumptions, how to begin, and suggestions for success.
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching-resources/classroom-practice/teaching-techniques-strategies/check-student-learning/

Developing a Personal Grading Plan
The University of Washington's Faculty Resource on Grading includes a module by the National Council on Measurement in Education on "Developing a Personal Grading Plan" that walks you through many of the issues involved in determining the fairness and defensibility of your grading plan.
https://depts.washington.edu/grading/pdf/DevelopingaPersonalGradingPlan.pdf

Evaluation Cookbook
For a handy checklist of evaluation techniques, visit the online "Evaluation Cookbook" Topics include: assessment, evaluation, checklists, concept maps, confidence logs, cost-effectiveness, designing experiments, ethnography, focus groups, interviews, nominal group technique, pre-test, post-test, questionnaire, observation, trials.
http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/ltdi/cookbook/recipes.html

Grades
The Doing CL website addresses the pros and cons of these and other group grading schemes
http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/archive/cl1/cl/doingcl/grades.htm

Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn
Authors Diane M. Emerson, Kathryn M. Plank, and R. Neill Johnson offer effective practices for teaching. These techniques have been tried and tested in Penn State University classrooms.
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/PennStateTeacherII.pdf

Nine Principles of Good Practice for Assessing Student Learning
Nine Principles of Good Practice for Assessing Student Learning, from the American Association of Higher Education.
http://lincs.ed.gov/professional-development/resource-collections/profile-481

Online Assessment Resources for Teachers
University of Wisconsin-Stout's authentic assessment resources includes rationale for authentic assessment and various strategies, including the use of electronic portfolios, rubrics, group grades.
http://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/assess.cfm

Rubric Template
Rubric template
http://edweb.sdsu.edu/triton/july/rubrics/Rubric_Template.html

Self-Assessment In Portfolios
"Self-assessment in Portfolios" describes how students can turn their writing notebooks into portfolios. The author provides a series of questions for students to answer after each composition.
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2port.htm

Structures for Student Self-Assessment
"Structures for Student Self-Assessment" emphasizes the importance of self-assessment to critical thinking. The author includes techniques that can be used by students in assessing reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The article concludes with a Global Self-Assessment, requiring students to do a global analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of their performance in a class.
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/structures-for-student-self-assessment/458

Teaching Effectiveness Program
The University of Oregon's Teaching Effectiveness Program Website provides lessons learned from Michael Sweet, who used peer evaluation with a freshman seminar (Click on Peer Evaluation to see "Petting the Shark: Using Student Peer Evaluations") and an introduction to formalized Team Learning.
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/assessment/successfulgroupassign/groups.html

teachnology
Rubric generator for many subjects
http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/

teachnology-General Rubric
Customizable general rubric
http://teachers.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/general/

The Case for Authentic Assessment
"The Case for Authentic Assessment" defines, gives examples, and anticipates arguments against the use of authentic assessment. Key concepts: authentic assessments, structured tasks, test validity
http://ericae.net/edo/ED328611.htm

The Muddiest Point in the Lecture as a Feedback Device
"The Muddiest Point in the Lecture as a Feedback Device" discusses the three questions that can be asked at the end of class as feedback.
http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic771890.files/OTL3-Mosteller-Muddiest.pdf

Using Student Peer Review
Colorado State University's Writing Center walks you through the use of peer review as a teaching technique. Topics include: Planning for Peer Review Sessions, Helping Students Make Effective Comments, Helping Students Handle Divergent Advice, and includes sample workshop sheets
http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/peer/

Using Technology to Support Alternative Assessment and Electronic Portfolios
Helen Barrett's website, "Using Technology to Support Alternative Assessment and Electronic Portfolios" provides a fantastic overview--including tutorials and articles--on creating and using standards-based electronic portfolios.
http://electronicportfolios.com/portfolios.html

Writing Multiple-Choice Questions that Demand Critical Thinking
The University of Oregon's Teaching Effectiveness Center, addresses the topic: "Writing Multiple Choice Questions that Demand Critical Thinking." The author presents important things to consider when designing questions, a discussion of Bloom's Taxonomy, several practical suggestions, techniques for creating questions, and a bibliography.
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/assessment/multiplechoicequestions/mc4critthink.html

Collaborative Learning

"A longitudinal study of engineering student performance and retention vs. comparisons with traditionally-taught students."
Felder, R., Felder, G., and Dietz, E.J. (1998). Journal of Engineering Education, 87(4), 469-480. Research on cooperative, active learning
http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Papers/long5.html

"An Overview of Cooperative Learning"
According to David and Roger Johnson of The Cooperative Learning Center at the University of Minnesota, cooperative learning includes five essential elements: positive interdependence, face-to-face promotive interaction, individual and group accountability, interpersonal and small group skills, and group processing.
http://www.co-operation.org/home/introduction-to-cooperative-learning/

A Revised Peer Assessment Instrument
"A Revised Peer Assessment Instrument," by Michael Toth and Jawad Khan at Portland State University and includes the peer assessment form.
http://www.pdx.edu/sites/www.pdx.edu.cae/files/facfocfall00.pdf

Active Learning for the College Classroom
Provides a survey of a wide variety of active learning techniques which can be used to supplement rather than replace lectures. The authors, Donald Paulson and Jennifer Faust present techniques for use with individual students (without interrupting the whole class) as well as techniques for use with small groups or the whole class.
http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/index.htm

Assessing Students and Yourself Using the One-Minute Paper and Observing Students Working Cooperatively
"Assessing Students and Yourself Using the One-Minute Paper and Observing Students Working Cooperatively" by Dr. Theodore Panitz and Patricia Panitz
http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedsarticles/Assessment.htm

Bedford Workshop on Teaching Writing Online
The Bedford Workshop on Teaching Writing Online goes into detail about how to teach students to review other students' writing and then explains additional techniques for peer review.
http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/technotes/workshops/peerview.htm

Brainstorming Before Speaking Tasks
Brainstorming is an activity used to generate ideas in small groups. The purpose is to generate as many ideas as possible within a specified time period. These ideas are not evaluated until the end, and a wide range of ideas is often produced. Each idea produced does not need to be usable. Instead, initial ideas can be viewed as a starting pint for more workable ideas. The principle of brainstorming is that you need a lot of ideas to get good ideas. The Internet TESL Journal's article "Brainstorming Before Speaking Tasks" describes research on how brainstorming affects learning and also gives practical implementation tips.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Cullen-Brainstorming

Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking
"Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking." Article about a study conducted to examine the effectiveness of individual learning vs. collaborative learning in enhancing drill-and-practice skills and critical thinking. Related concept: cooperative learning
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/jte-v7n1/gokhale.jte-v7n1.html

Collaborative Learning Structures and Techniques
This article describes a number of strategies for using collaborative learning.
http://www.gdrc.org/kmgmt/c-learn/methods.html#top

Collaborative Learning a CET Resource
Collaborative learning resources from CET.
http://www.washington.edu/teaching/

Constructivism
University of Colorado at Denver's Constructivism website houses links to a comprehensive list of readings on the educational theory of constructivism and its main proponents. Related concepts: cooperative, collaborative, active, experiential learning
http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/constructivism.html

Cooperative Learning And Social Interdependence Theory
Johnson & Johnson largely base their examinations of instructional practices on social interdependence theory. For additional background, see "Cooperative Learning And Social Interdependence Theory"
http://www.co-operation.org/newsletters/

Doing CL
This site from the National Institute for Science Education that allows for access to many different strategies for structuring collaborative learning experiences Gives ideas, tips, structure and knowledge on group learning, group dynamics, questioning strategies,jigsaw, roundtable, structured problem-solving, group assessment. Select Doing CL from the icons at the bottom to get to the techniques pages.
http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/archive/cl1/CL/default.asp

Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis
Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., and Donovan, S. (1998). "Effects of cooperative learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis." (Research Monograph No. 11). Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Institute for Science Education, Review of Educational Research
http://archive.wceruw.org/nise/publications/Research_Monographs/RM11-Effects%20of%20Small-Group%20_Learning.html

Enhancing Student Thinking Through Collaborative Learning
Four page guide for teachers who want to incorporate successful group learning into their classrooms. Published in 1998 as an ERIC Digest, this article covers the critical attributes of group learning, instructional phases of collaborative learning, and references. Related concepts: cooperative learning, groups, interdependence.
http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED422586.pdf

Groups that Work
Gerard M Blair, Senior Lecturer in Electrical Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, offers a concise look at group development, in his article "Groups That Work"
http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/Management/art0.html?http://oldeee.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/Management/art0.html

Guidelines and Criteria for Small Group/Cooperative Learning Projects
Professor Michael Goldberg's "Guidelines and Criteria for Small Group/Cooperative Learning Projects." Published in 1994, updated 2001. Related concepts: collaborative learning, group dynamics, interpersonal skills
http://faculty.washington.edu/mlg/students/groupskills.html

Intended Learning Objectives and Optimal Learning Methods
A table summarizing the efficacy of individual, competitive and collaborative learning methods in reaching specific learning objectives. Based on 122 research papers on the topic
http://www.gdrc.org/kmgmt/c-learn/types-learn.html

Small Group Teaching
"Small Group Teaching" by David Jaques focuses on group characteristics and dynamics, instructor interventions, and methods for evaluating how well the technique has worked.
http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/small-group/index.html

Suggestions for Leading Small-Group Discussions
The article "Suggestions for Leading Small-Group Discussions" from Iowa State's Center for Teaching Excellence, outlines how and when to use small group discussions as a teaching technique
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching-resources/classroom-practice/teaching-techniques-strategies/leading-classroom-discussion/small-group-discussions/

Teaching Effectiveness Program
The University of Oregon's Teaching Effectiveness Program Website provides lessons learned from Michael Sweet, who used peer evaluation with a freshman seminar (Click on Peer Evaluation to see "Petting the Shark: Using Student Peer Evaluations") and an introduction to formalized Team Learning.
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/assessment/successfulgroupassign/groups.html

Team-Based Learning
Larry Michaelsen's Team-Based Learning concept is differentiated from "group" learning as a process by which an instructor consciously creates the conditions that will enable student "groups" to become student "teams: Includes video demonstrations of Michaelsen implementing various aspects of the whole Team-Based Learning process.
http://tblc.roundtablelive.org//vid

Teamwork Guide
The College of Engineering at Bucknell University has developed an indepth Practical Guide to Teamwork that covers everything you need to know to get started. Highly recommended!
http://www.bucknell.edu/Documents/Engineering/TeamWork_Guide.pdf

Ted's Very Interesting Articles on Collaborative Learning
A site that links to articles about using cooperative learning in mathematics classes by Cape Cod Community College's Dr. Theodore Panitz. Related concepts: collaborative learning.
http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/starterpages/articles.htm

The Essential Elements of Cooperative Learning in the Classroom
This site offers a scholarly presentation of key components of cooperative learning which must be included in activities through careful planning, i.e., heterogeneous groups and individual accountability.
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED370881.pdf

The Team-Based Learning Collaborative
This website includes numerous resources for learning about Team-Based Learning (TBL), the TBL process, designing courses, and implementing TBL in your classroom.
http://tblc.roundtablelive.org/

Using Cooperative Learning 100% Of the Time In Mathematics Classes Establishes A Student-centered, Interactive Learning Environment
"Using Cooperative Learning 100% Of the Time In Mathematics Classes Establishes A Student-centered, Interactive Learning Environment" by Dr. Theodore Panitz, Cape Cod Community College.
http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedsarticles/coopmath.htm

Using Student Peer Review
Colorado State University's Writing Center walks you through the use of peer review as a teaching technique. Topics include: Planning for Peer Review Sessions, Helping Students Make Effective Comments, Helping Students Handle Divergent Advice, and includes sample workshop sheets
http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/peer/

Why More Teachers Do Not Use Collaborative Learning Techniques
"Why More Teachers Do Not Use Collaborative Learning Techniques" By Dr. Theodore Panitz
http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedsarticles/whyfewclusers.htm

Critical Thinking

35 dimensions of critical thought
The North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, under Critical Thinking Skills, offers "35 dimensions of critical thought." It classifies the strategies in the list into Affective Strategies (exercising fair mindedness, developing intellectual courage), Cognitive Strategies (refining generalizations and avoiding oversimplifications, questioning deeply: raising and pursuing root or significant questions), and Cognitive Strategies--Micro-Skills (comparing and contrasting ideals with actual practice, exploring implications and consequences). Any student capable of putting most of the 35 dimensions into effect would be an accomplished critical thinker; any educator capable of incorporating most of the 35 dimensions into a course's work would be a consummate advocate of critical thinking.
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/envrnmnt/drugfree/sa3crit.htm

A Brief History of the Idea of Critical Thinking
The article "A Brief History of the Idea of Critical Thinking" by Richard Paul and Linda Elder of the Critical Thinking Consortium explains how the philosophical traditions of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle gave rise to the critical thinking processes we teach today:
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/a-brief-history-of-the-idea-of-critical-thinking/408

A Draft Statement of Principles
"A Draft Statement of Principles" which briefly delineates the history of critical thinking from Socrates to the present; the goals of the Council, which are applicable to all interested in implementing critical thinking; and its founding principles, excellent general guidelines for any CT program.
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/the-national-council-for-excellence-in-critical-thinking/406

Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers
"Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers"
http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm

Bloom's Taxonomy
The University of Victoria's website briefly defines and explains Bloom's work, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals
http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/exams/blooms-taxonomy.html

Center for Critical Thinking Library
Center for Critical Thinking Library contains readings (such as one on asking powerful questions) designed to help instructors foster the growth of critical thinking skills in their students.
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/index-of-articles/1021/

Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking
"Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking." Article about a study conducted to examine the effectiveness of individual learning vs. collaborative learning in enhancing drill-and-practice skills and critical thinking. Related concept: cooperative learning
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/jte-v7n1/gokhale.jte-v7n1.html

Critical Thinking Core Concepts
Critical Thinking Core Concepts by Lauren Miller and Michael Connelly, Longview Community College
http://mcckc.edu/services/criticalthinking/corenotes/info.asp

Critical Thinking Handbook
Michael O'Rourke's Critical Thinking Handbook is available online. Each chapter in the handbook offers both theory and applications. Sample chapter headings are "Critical Thinking and Argument," "Analyzing Argument," and "The Fallacies." Particularly helpful for beginners is "Chapter Two: Characterizing Critical Thinking." This chapter defines CT and explains thinking skills; its exposition of "Goal Pursuit Skills," "Criteria Recognition Skills," and "Option Evaluation Skills" is exceptional and enlightening.
http://www.class.uidaho.edu/crit_think/

Critical Thinking in an Online World
"Critical Thinking in an Online World" addresses the difficulty of refining research skills and selecting valid materials from the librarians' point of view. It states, "The librarian would serve the student best if we taught the process of defining the information query, of designing the entire research strategy, and then moved on to selection and evaluation of research tools." Instead, many times the librarian thinks for the students and presents them with the search engines and terms they will need to carry out their research.
http://misc.library.ucsb.edu/untangle/jones.html

Critical Thinking on the Web
Tim van Gelder's "Critical Thinking on the Web" offers links to Argument Mapping Tutorials, The Fallacy Files, and Baloney Detection Part 1 and Part 2, a Ten Step Guide
http://austhink.com/critical/

Critical Thinking, The Scientific Method
"Adams offers short and long versions of how he integrated critical thinking into his developmental biology class by 'explicitly discussing the logic and thought processes that inform experimental methods.'" Although focusing on science, the processes followed here are applicable, with some modification, to all disciplines.
http://www.sdbonline.org/archive/SDBEduca/dany_adams/critical_thinking.html

Critical Thinking: What Is It and Why It Counts
Peter Facione begins his clever exploration of the definition of critical thinking by guiding the reader's own use of the process in the essay, "Critical Thinking: What Is It and Why It Counts" (1998, updated 2006) California Academic Press. His work on critical thinking includes having served as the principle investigator for Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction. (ERIC ED 315 423) The experts list the core cognitive skills necessary for critical thinking as: analysis, interpretation, evaluation, inference, self-regulation, and explanation.
http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2006.pdf

Defining Critical Thinking
Michael Scriven and Richard Paul, writing for the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, define the process this way: "Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action." For more on their philosophy, read "Defining Critical Thinking."
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/index-of-articles/defining-critical-thinking/766

Getting Started with Cooperative Learning
A sample academic controversy exercise developed for an engineering class by Karl Smith
http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/archive/cl1/CL/story/smithkar/TSKSD.htm

How to Keep Your Students Thinking
"How to Keep Your Students Thinking" adapted from Ellen Sarkisian's Participatory Lectures, from the Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, Harvard Univ., 1992, explains how to use questioning strategies to keep even large numbers of students engaged with learning. Sarkisian notes: "When students engage actively with material, they generally understand it better and remember it longer. Student participation often results in covering less material during a semester. Yet it also can mean that students learn more information than when the material is simply "covered" because they actively use it and have more chances to clear up confusion. Large numbers of students in class do not preclude interaction. The following techniques to open up lectures to student participation have been used in classes of up to 1200 students, as well as with smaller groups."
http://trc.virginia.edu/resources/how-to-keep-your-students-thinking-2/

Problem-based Learning, especially in the context of large classes
The website of the chemical engineering department at McMaster University provides excellent resources for facilitating problem-based learning--learning in which "the problem drives the learning....that is, before students learn some knowledge they are given a problem. The problem is posed so that the students discover that they need to learn some new knowledge before they can solve the problem." Included as a resource is an electronic copy of D. R. Woods' book, Problem-based Learning: Helping Your Students Gain the Most from PBL—written for teachers to give them the process for implementing their personal style of PBL for their environment.
http://chemeng.mcmaster.ca/problem-based-learning

Psychology of Intelligence Analysis
Richards J. Heuer's Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, though written for the CIA, offers an excellent book-length, online text on intelligence. "Part II -- Tools" and "Part III -- Cognitive Biases" are of particular interest to CT scholars.
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/psych-intel/index.html

Socratic Teaching
Socratic Teaching
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/index-of-articles/socratic-teaching/606

Strategies for Teaching Critical Thinking
Bonnie Potts in "Strategies for Teaching Critical Thinking,"an Eric Digest, presents the basics of critical thinking instruction concisely and simply. She also provides practical suggestions for classroom implementation. In particular, she focuses on "three specific strategies." The first, Building Categories, "is an inductive reasoning tool that helps students categorize information by discovering the rules rather than merely memorizing them." The second, Finding Problems, encourages the educator to attempt "to present more 'real-life' problems" instead of the classic, but unrealistic, problems encountered in most textbooks. The third, Enhancing the Environment, discusses classroom adaptations to encourage critical thinking.
http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=4&n=3

Structured Academic Controversy
The site provides a detailed description of the instructional use of structured academic controversy. The "how-to" section contains videos of the practice in action.
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/teaching_methods/sac/index.html

Study of 38 Public Universities and 28 Private Universities
Study of 38 Public Universities and 28 Private Universities To Determine Faculty Emphasis on Critical Thinking In Instruction
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/study-of-38-public-universities-and-28-private-universities-/598

The Critical Mind is a Questioning Mind
"The Critical Mind is a Questioning Mind: Learning How to Ask Powerful, Probing Questions"
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/index-of-articles/the-critical-mind-is-a-questioning-mind/481

The Critical Thinking Rubric
For a comprehensive and insightful tool for assessing student work, refer to this site. It offers "The Critical Thinking Rubric," an instrument which" articulates seven dimensions of CT...acts as a diagnostic measure for student progress...[and] demystifies the expectations of instructors for students." Whether used as a whole or in part, as is or modified, this rubric clearly delineates for the student the bases of evaluation of his/her work.
http://tinyurl.com/89wo5c2

The Role of Questions in Thinking, Teaching and Learning
"The Role of Questions in Thinking, Teaching and Learning" from the Center for Critical Thinking
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/the-role-of-questions-in-teaching-thinking-and-learning/524

Using Intellectual Standards to Assess Student Reasoning
"Using Intellectual Standards to Assess Student Reasoning" also presents guidelines for assessment. It posits two "dimensions of reasoning": 1) Elements of Reasoning, i.e., purpose, inferences, evidence, etc., and 2) Standards of Reasoning, i.e., clarity, logic, consistency, flexibility and fairness, significance of purpose, and precision and depth.
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/index-of-articles/using-intellectual-standards-to-assess-student-reasoning/602

What Students Know (Or Don't Know) About Argument
This site discusses the basic elements of CT and relates them to Bloom’s Taxonomy. In addition, it stresses the need for instruction and student activity to progress from lower to higher levels of critical analysis. It makes clear that without a careful progression, students will be unable to complete the required tasks successfully. A psychology course is used as an example of an appropriate progression throughout a semester and of the support built into the CT developmental stages.
http://dartmouth.edu/writing-speech/teaching/first-year-writing-pedagogies-methods-design/teaching-argument

Writing Multiple-Choice Questions that Demand Critical Thinking
The University of Oregon's Teaching Effectiveness Center, addresses the topic: "Writing Multiple Choice Questions that Demand Critical Thinking." The author presents important things to consider when designing questions, a discussion of Bloom's Taxonomy, several practical suggestions, techniques for creating questions, and a bibliography.
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/assessment/multiplechoicequestions/mc4critthink.html

Diversity

Campus Climate for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered People
Campus Climate for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered People: A National Perspective. A report from the Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. April 2003.
http://www.thetaskforce.org/downloads/reports/reports/CampusClimate.pdf

Digest of Education Statistics
This site provides a massive statistical compilation of socioeconomic data, i.e., Levels of Education, Outcomes of Education, International Comparisons of Education.
http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/

Diversity
This site offers both a classification and definitions of diversity, i.e., race, ethnicity, gender, language, special needs, sexual orientation, religion, socioeconomic and geographic differences.
http://www.tommihail.net/diversity.html

Diversity Essay Series
This series of essays, developed and printed by the University of Colorado at Boulder, feature different pedagogies on diversity in the college classroom.
http://www.colorado.edu/ftep/publications/diversity.html

Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education
This site is the home of the Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education (EMME) archives. EMME was published between 1999 and 2006. Its multiple offerings justify checking this site for thematic applicability. The International Journal of Multicultural Education (IJME)replaced EMME in 2007.
http://jonah.eastern.edu/emme/previous.html

International Journal of Multicultural Education
International Journal of Multicultural Education (IJME) is a peer-reviewed open-access journal for scholars, practitioners, and students of multicultural education. IJME is committed to promoting educational equity, cross-cultural understanding, and global awareness in all levels of education and educational leadership.
http://ijme-journal.org/index.php/ijme

Key Characteristics of a Multicultural Curriculum
Key Characteristics of a Multicultural Curriculum. A brief outline describing the delivery, content, teaching materials, perspective, inclusivity, social and civic responsibility and assessments characteristic of a multicultural curriculum.
http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/curriculum/characteristics.html

Managing Hot Moments in the Classroom
Sometimes things seem to explode in the classroom, and what do we do then? How do we address important, but hot, topics -- religion, politics, race, class, gender -- in our classroom discussions? "Managing Hot Moments in the Classroom" by Lee Warren of Harvard University's Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, offers strategies for turning difficult encounters into learning opportunities.
http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/html/icb.topic58474/hotmoments.html

Multicultural Education and Ethnic Groups: Selected Internet Sources
This site serves as an Internet clearinghouse of resources for multicultural education. Selections include background articles, biographies, book reviews, discussion groups, lesson plans, and links to resources on specific areas of interest, such as ethnic cooking, folklore, and holidays. This site lends itself to browsing in order to define areas of interest.
http://wwwlibrary.csustan.edu/lboyer/multicultural/main.htm

Multicultural Education Pavilion
One of the many valuable contributions of this site is its Multicultural Awareness Quiz designed to clarify assumptions and promote awareness of multicultural issues.
http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/index.html

Multicultural Teaching
This is a must peruse site with an emphasis on practical discussions of various diversity subtopics.
http://www.crlt.umich.edu/multicultural-teaching

PFLAG.org
Hate crimes, or bias-motivated crimes are offenses motivated by hatred against a victim based on his or her race, religion, sexual orientation, handicap, ethnicity, or national origin. Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbian and Gays' website explores the issues surrounding hate crimes and hate crime legislation.
http://community.pflag.org/Page.aspx?pid=1271

Project Implicit
Are you aware of your attitudes about yourself and others based on age, race, gender, and academic background? Harvard University, the University of Virginia, and the University of Washington have developed the Implicit Association Test to help you find out.
http://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/

Sensitivity to Women in the Contemporary Classroom
Sensitivity to Women in the Contemporary Classroom--from the Tips for Teachers series by the Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, Harvard University. Explores ways to insure that all students participate in class discussions.
http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/html/icb.topic58474/TFTwomen.html

Ten Common Fallacies About Bilingual Education
This site lists and elucidates four common misconceptions about language diversity: that English literacy is threatened; that English literacy is the only literacy worth noting; that immigrants today are not as eager to learn English as past generations were; and that English-only instruction is the best way to promote English literacy.
http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/crawford01.html

Transcript of Harvard Educational Review's Ethnicity and Education Forum: What Difference Does Difference Make?
"Transcript of Harvard Educational Review's Ethnicity and Education Forum: What Difference Does Difference Make?" Harvard Educational Review. Summer 1997. 15 November 2002.
http://hepg.org/her-home/issues/harvard-educational-review-volume-67-issue-2/herarticle/what-difference-does-difference-make-_221

Women and Men in the Classroom: Inequality and Its Remedies
Catherine G. Krupnick, in her article "Women and Men in the Classroom: Inequality and Its Remedies" explains how she analyzed videotaped class sessions to answer the research questions: What are the differences, if any, between male and female students' participation in classroom discussion? How does the gender of the teacher affect the students' participation?
http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/html/icb.topic58474/krupnick.html

Working on Common Cross-Cultural Communication Challenges
Working on Common Cross-Cultural Communication Challenges by Marcelle E. DuPraw, National Institute for Dispute Resolution and Marya Axner, Consultant in Leadership Development & Diversity Awareness
http://www.jyu.fi/mclinic/cis/cross-cultural.html

Learning Communities

Five Models of Integrated Learning Communities
Five general models for organizing integrated learning communities, as summarized by Linda Sullivan at Maricopa Community Colleges. There are hundreds of possible variations on these models limited only by the creativity and finances of the institutions that implement them.
http://www.caspercollege.edu/lc/downloads/5_models.pdf

Learning Communities Bibliography
An excellent bibliography on Learning Communities
http://web.monroecc.edu/manila/webfiles/mnolan/LearningCommBibliography.pdf

Learning Communities Handbook
While every learning community will be unique, the Crafton Hills College Learning Communities Handbook addresses some of the typical steps that most instructors will find useful in working through the initial planning and implementation phases for building learning communities
http://www.craftonhills.edu/~/media/Files/SBCCD/CHC/Degrees%20and%20Certs/Learning%20Communities/CHC%20LC%20Handbook%20Final%20F12.pdf

National Learning Community Project
The National Learning Community Project's website explores a variety of approaches used to build learning communities, with all intended to restructure the students' time, credit, and learning experiences to build community among students, between students and their teachers, and among faculty members and disciplines.
https://www.evergreen.edu/washingtoncenter/

The Virtual Community
Howard Rheingold's seminal work The Virtual Community addresses the implementation of electronic learning communities
http://www.rheingold.com/vc/book/

Learning Styles

"Different Strokes for Different Folks? A Critique of Learning Styles"
"Different Strokes for Different Folks? A Critique of Learning Styles" by Steven Stahl, professor of reading education at the University of Georgia.
http://www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/fall1999/DiffStrokes.pdf

Carl Jung and Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Don Clark's website contains a nuts and bolts overview of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator with its four continuums (Introverted/Extroverted; Intuition/Sensation; Thinking/Feeling; Judging/Perceiving) and its sixteen combinations (types) and compares the Myers-Briggs model to Jung's and Kolb's models.
http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles.html

Center for Applications of Psychological Type
A more thorough explanation of the MBTI is available at the Center for Applications of Personality Type website
http://www.capt.org

Cognitive Profile Learning Styles Model
Developed by Dr. Lois Breur Krause, the Cognitive Profile Model describes what we do with the information once we have it. How do we process it? What do we need to do to develop a real understanding of the new material? The model is based on Jung's theory of personality type in which personality is described using four pairs of characteristics that are opposite one another, such as introverted/extroverted. While the Myers Briggs personality type indicator is also based on Jung's work, Krause attempted to simplify the outcome with her model. Instead of 16 possible personality types, her inventory yields four--a manageable number for dealing with in a classroom setting.
http://www.cognitiveprofile.com/home

Cognitive Styles
Originally proposed by Hermann Witkin, et. al. in 1962, the Field Independent and Field Dependent Cognitive Styles model postulates that "[the] field dependent rely on external cues, or visual framework, in the perception of the upright. Conversely, people who rely on internal cues, such as body orientation and gravitational pull are considered field independent."
http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/stephens/csback.html

Comparing Student Learning Styles
Diaz, D. P., & Cartnal, R. B. (1999). Students' learning styles in two classes: Online distance learning and equivalent on-campus. College Teaching 47(4), 130-135.
http://home.earthlink.net/~davidpdiaz/LTS/html_docs/grslss.htm

David A. Kolb on experiential learning
A nice list of critiques of Kolb's model can be found at: Smith, M. K. (2001) "David A. Kolb on experiential learning," The Encyclopedia of Informal Education.
http://infed.org/mobi/david-a-kolb-on-experiential-learning/

Dunn and Dunn learning styles model
The Dunn and Dunn learning styles model takes into account how a person interacts with various internal and external stimuli across five categories: environmental, emotional, sociological, physiological, and psychological stimuli.
http://www.ilsa-learning-styles.com/Learning+Styles/The+Dunn+and+Dunn+Learning+Styles+Model.html

Field Independent/Dependent Learning Styles and L2 Acquisition
Robert Wyss's article "Field Independent/Dependent Learning Styles and L2 Acquisition" (ELT Newsletter, June 2002) lists the principal characteristics of the two styles and offers a helpful checklist for helping students identify their cognitive style. While the checklist is designed for use with students learning a second language, it could be adapted for use in other academic disciplines.
http://www.eltnewsletter.com/back/June2002/art1022002.htm

Going Cycling with Learning Styles
"Teaching Around the Cycle" is one way of describing instruction that accommodates multiple learning styles in an attempt to motivate and engage all students and to encourage them to expand their skills and abilities as widely as possible. Lisa Lim's article, "Going Cycling with Learning Styles" diagrams how a learner might start at the style within Kolb's cycle that he or she is most comfortable with and progress through the rest of the cycle. She offers helpful advice for students who need to develop their capacity to learn in other modes--questions they can ask themselves as they cycle through the stages, as well as concrete suggestions for developing each style.
http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/success/sl27.htm

GSU Master Teacher Program: On Learning Styles
Harvey Brightman at Georgia State University has developed a very helpful website on teaching students having different learning styles, as assessed using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Along with practical strategies for teaching each type of student, he reminds us to be aware that according to studies by the Center for Applied Psychological Type most undergraduates are extraverts and the majority of university faculty are introverts. Related concepts: MBTI, psychological type
http://www2.gsu.edu/~dschjb/wwwmbti.html

Hemispheric Dominance Theory
Carolyn Hopper's website at Middle Tennessee State University examines hemispheric dominance as a learning style. She is the author of Practicing College Study Skills: Strategies for Success. Check out the link to her "Study Skills Help Page" as well!
http://www.mtsu.edu/~studskl/hd/learn.html

How Do I Learn Best?
The VARK learning styles model consists of Visual, Auditory, Reading/Writing, and Kinesthetic modalities. The VARK questionnaire "How Do I Learn Best?" provides users with a profile of their preferences. Related concepts: perceptual modality preference
http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p=questionnaire

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School
The National Academy of Science's research provides a deep understanding of complex reasoning and performance on problem-solving tasks and how skill and understanding in key subjects are acquired.
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853

Howard Gardner
This is the home page for Howard Gardner. It houses many of his papers and other information on Multiple Intelligences
http://howardgardner.com/

I'm different, not dumb: Modes of presentation (VARK) in the tertiary classroom
Article, "I'm different, not dumb: Modes of presentation (VARK) in the tertiary classroom." Fleming, N.D; (1995), in Zelmer, A., (ed.) Research and Development in Higher Education, HERDSA, 308 - 313. For insight on techniques for reaching students having various sensory mode learning preferences.
http://www.vark-learn.com/documents/different_not_dumb.pdf

Index of Learning Styles
Explanation of learning styles, particularly as related to technical fields and an Index of Learning Styles - an online learning styles inventory developed by Barbara A. Soloman and Richard M. Felder of North Carolina State University
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSpage.html

Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire
Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, developed by Barabara Soloman and Richard Felder at North Carolina State University. An online assessment tool that will provide you with immediate feedback.
http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html

Index of Learning Styles, Learning Styles
Richard Felder, professor of chemical engineering, and Linda K. Silverman, an educational psychologist, developed a model of learning styles and a parallel model of teaching styles designed to be used with students in technical disciplines. "The idea is not to teach each student exclusively according to his or her preferences, but rather to strive for a balance of instructional methods.” The information, however, is applicable for all students in all disciplines. The Index of Learning Styles is an instrument used to assess preferences on four dimensions (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global) of the Felder-Silverman learning style model. The ILS instrument was developed by Felder and Barbara A. Soloman of North Carolina State University. Both an on-line version and a pencil-and-paper version of the instrument may be accessed from this page.
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Learning_Styles.html

Institute for Learning Styles Research
The Institute for Learning Styles Research website expands and updates the VAK model, explaining that "perceptual learning styles are the means by which learners extract information from their surroundings through the use of their five senses. Individuals have different 'pathways' that are specific to them. When information enters that 'pathway' the information is retained in short term memory. Repeated exposure and use promote retention in long term memory." Related concepts: perceptual modality preference, print, aural, interactive, visual, verbal, haptic, kinesthetic, olfactory
http://www.learningstyles.org/

Keirsey Temperament Sorter
A free version of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter is available here, but you must register to use it.
http://www.keirsey.com/sorter/register.aspx

Keirsey Temperament versus Myers-Briggs Types
Keirsey's Sorter and the MBTI are deeply connected and have often been confused with each other. This site offers the clearest explanation of the differences between the two models.
http://www.keirsey.com/difference.aspx

Learning and teaching styles in foreign and second language education
Felder, R., and Henriques, E. (1995). Learning and teaching styles in foreign and second language education. Foreign Language Annals, 28(1), 21-31. Although this article focuses on language, its detailed, practical suggestions are valuable for all areas.
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/FLAnnals.pdf

Learning Styles
In order to use the Dunn & Dunn model to provide direction and structure for effective teaching strategies, four factors that vary among groups and in individuals over time must be considered: global versus analytic processing styles, age, gender, and high- versus low-academic achievement. Read Sarah Church's article which goes into more detail about the Dunn & Dunn model of learning styles
http://www.teresadybvig.com/learnsty.htm

Learning to Learn: Thinking and Learning Skills
The Learning Disabilities Resource Community has developed a free, ten-week course "designed to raise learners' awareness of the cognitive and metacognitive aspects of thinking and learning." While the course is designed for students to reflect on their own thinking, it offers several modules that could be helpful to you as an instructor--including a module on learning styles. You can visit the site as a guest or establish a free account.
https://atsp.atutorspaces.com/go.php/L2L/index.php/p_course/3

Matters of style
Felder, R., (1996) Matters of style. ASEE Prism, 6(4), 18-23. Felder explores how four learning style models (Felder-Silverman, Kolb, Myers-Briggs and the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument) might be applied in the classroom: An objective of education should thus be to help students build their skills in both their preferred and less preferred modes of learning. Learning style models that categorize these modes provide good frameworks for designing instruction with the desired breadth. The goal is to make sure that the learning needs of students in each model category are met at least part of the time. This is referred to as "teaching around the cycle."
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/LS-Prism.htm

Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner theorizes that although our culture rewards primarily verbal/linguistic and logical/mathematical intelligence, there are at least five additional kinds of intelligence that are equally important: musical, spatial, body-kinesthetic, intrapersonal (e.g., insight, metacognition) and interpersonal (e.g., social skills).
http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles/gardner.html

Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years
"Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years" a paper presented by Howard Gardner on April 21, 2003, to the American Educational Research Association
http://howardgardner01.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/mi-after-twenty-years2.pdf

New Students - New Learning Styles
"New Students, New Learning Styles" by Charles Schroeder provides fascinating information from the TRAILS (Tracking Retention and Academic Integration by Learning Styles) research project, a longitudinal, eight-year study designed to provide educators data on how student characteristics such as Myers-Briggs type, ACT/SAT score, high school grade point average, demographic and other factors related to choice of major, academic "aptitude," academic performance in specific curricular areas, and attrition. Schroeder then suggests ways to bridge the gap between faculty and student learning styles.
http://www.virtualschool.edu/mon/Academia/KierseyLearningStyles.html

Not Another Inventory, Rather a Catalyst for Reflection
In the article "Not Another Inventory, Rather a Catalyst for Reflection," the questionnaire's creators focus on the use of a modal preferences questionnaire as a catalyst to empower students to reflect on their own sensory preferences and modify their study methods accordingly. The authors discuss the development and use of the questionnaire, strategies for students to use in modifying their learning behavior, responses of students and faculty to the technique, and directions for further investigation of modal preferences. Related concepts: perceptual modality preference
http://www.vark-learn.com/documents/not_another_inventory.pdf

Online Versus Traditionally-delivered Instruction
The article "Online Versus Traditionally-delivered Instruction: A Descriptive Study of Learner Characteristics in a Community College Setting" describes the research of Alana M. Halsne and Louis A. Gatta. They concluded that the online learners were predominately visual learners and the traditional learners at this community college in suburban Chicago were primarily auditory or kinesthetic learners.
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring51/halsne51.html

Open to Interpretation: Multiple Intelligences Theory in Adult Literacy Education
This report, "Open to Interpretation: Multiple Intelligences Theory in Adult Literacy Education" presents the findings from the Adult Multiple Intelligences Study and looks at the application of multiple intelligence-informed instruction and assessment in Adult Basic Education (ABE), Adult Secondary Education (ASE) and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)
http://www.ncsall.net/fileadmin/resources/research/report21.pdf

Reaching the Second Tier: Learning and Teaching Styles in College Science Education
Another helpful learning styles article by Richard Felder is "Reaching the Second Tier: Learning and Teaching Styles in College Science Education." Written with science instructors in mind, it promotes a multistyle teaching approach through the adoption of the "systematic use of a small number of additional teaching methods."
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Secondtier.html

Sensory Modality Preference Inventory
Self-assessment tool, the Sensory Modality Preference Inventory. Related concepts: perceptual modality preference
http://www.brookhavencollege.edu/learningstyle/modality_test.aspx

Some Characteristics of Adult Learners
This website, Some Characteristics of Adult Learners, with Teaching Implications, provides helpful comparison tables examining: adult learners vs. youth learners; instructor-centered vs. student-centered teaching; styles of thinking; and styles of learning
http://wallacecenter.rit.edu/tls/characteristics-adult-learners

Student Learning Styles and Their Implications for Teaching
If you only have time to read one article on learning styles, make it this one! "Student Learning Styles and Their Implications for Teaching," a paper by Susan Montgomery and Linda Groat for the University of Michigan's Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, compares the Myers-Briggs, Kolb, and Felder-Silverman learning styles models and examines the Grasha Riechmann model which is based on students' responses to actual classroom activities rather than personality or cognitive traits. Teaching methods associated with each cluster of teaching and learning styles are summarized in a convenient table.
http://www.eecs.umich.edu/cse/cs_connections/cs4hs_presentations_09/Student_Learning_Styles.pdf

Teaching Perspective Inventory
Teaching Perspective Inventory developed by Daniel Pratt and John Collins.
http://www.teachingperspectives.com/drupal/

The Keirsey Temperament Sorter
According to David Keirsey The Keirsey Temperament Sorter has been in existence for over twenty years and follows the Myers-Briggs method of assessment closely--asking more indirect questions. The Keirsey Character Sorter is more closely related to the Keirsey Four Temperaments--asking more direct questions and using the technique of ranking. In addition, "both questionnaires can be fooled in giving the wrong assessments, given that many people are not very good at assessing themselves. The Character Sorter might have a slight bias towards assessing people's perceived desired traits as opposed to their actual behavior." The four temperaments are: Idealist, Rational, Artisan, and Guardian.
http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/overview_temperaments.asp

Theory Into Practice (TIP)
Greg Kearsley's "Theories into Practice" database defines cognitive style as "a personality dimension which influences attitudes, values, and social interaction." Related concepts: cognitive styles
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/index.html

VAK Learning Styles
The VAK model focuses rather narrowly on three sensory receivers (Vision, Auditory, and Kinesthetic) to indicate the dominant learning style. Related concepts: perceptual modality preference
http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles/vakt.html

Learning Theory

A Survey of an Adult Learner
Constructivism acknowledges outside influences and stimuli while stressing individual formation and interpretation. Perhaps Piaget said it best when he said that humans are in "a process of continuous self-construction...we create knowledge in our heads and that created knowledge may be interpreted differently by each of us." From William Jackson's 1996 article, "Survey of an Adult Learner."
http://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/17550766/a-survey-of-an-adult-learnerpdf-cyber-mesa-telecom

Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Education, Higher Education Issues - in particular, the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.
http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/elibrary

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School
The National Academy of Science's research provides a deep understanding of complex reasoning and performance on problem-solving tasks and how skill and understanding in key subjects are acquired.
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853

Learning to Learn: Thinking and Learning Skills
The Learning Disabilities Resource Community has developed a free, ten-week course "designed to raise learners' awareness of the cognitive and metacognitive aspects of thinking and learning." While the course is designed for students to reflect on their own thinking, it offers several modules that could be helpful to you as an instructor--including a module on learning styles. You can visit the site as a guest or establish a free account.
https://atsp.atutorspaces.com/go.php/L2L/index.php/p_course/3

Psychology of Intelligence Analysis
Richards J. Heuer's Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, though written for the CIA, offers an excellent book-length, online text on intelligence. "Part II -- Tools" and "Part III -- Cognitive Biases" are of particular interest to CT scholars.
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/psych-intel/index.html

Some Characteristics of Adult Learners
This website, Some Characteristics of Adult Learners, with Teaching Implications, provides helpful comparison tables examining: adult learners vs. youth learners; instructor-centered vs. student-centered teaching; styles of thinking; and styles of learning
http://wallacecenter.rit.edu/tls/characteristics-adult-learners

The Theories
Greg Kearsley's website "Theory into Practice" is wonderful for both beginners and general investigators of learning theory for adults. It offers multiple, simple explanations of many of the theories under the heading "The Theories." Each entry consists of the following subsections: Overview, Scope/Application, Example, Principles, References, and Relevant Web Sites.
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/index.html

The Theory and Practice of Transformative Learning: A Critical Review
Transformative learning, according to Mezirow, is a theory that is "partly a developmental process, but more...the process of using a priori interpretation to construe a new or revised interpretation of the meaning of one's experience in order to guide future action." See "The Theory and Practice of Transformative Learning: A Critical Review."
http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/taylor/taylor_00.pdf

New Faculty Resources

"Novice instructors and student-centered instruction: identifying and addressing obstacles to learning in the college science laboratory."
"Novice instructors and student-centered instruction: identifying and addressing obstacles to learning in the college science laboratory." The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2(1). Winter, D., Lemons, P., Bookman, J., Hoese, W. (2001) Two biologists and two mathematicians collected data through clinical observations of 40 laboratory sections. Identifies and analyzes some problems with the implementation of student-centered instruction in introductory college science and mathematics laboratory courses. Potential problems include those associated with interactions between the instructor and individual students, interactions between the instructor and small groups of students, and the instructor's ability to monitor the learning environment. Provides practical suggestions for dealing with each category of problems.
http://josotl.indiana.edu/article/view/1590/1589

Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers
"Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers"
http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm

Bloom's Taxonomy
The University of Victoria's website briefly defines and explains Bloom's work, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals
http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/exams/blooms-taxonomy.html

Creating a Syllabus
Info on creating a course syllabus including a four-page checklist of components of a syllabus.
http://teaching.berkeley.edu/components-syllabus

First Day of Class
The importance of getting a good start is underscored by Richard M. Felder (North Carolina State University) and Rebecca Brent (East Carolina University) in the following statement from this Web site: "The first day of a course may not determine how well the rest of the course works, but it goes a long way. A good start can carry the instructor through several weeks of early shakiness, and a bad one can take several weeks of damage control to overcome." The web site includes the following sections Opening Formalities (syllabus, calendar, policies and procedures); Suggestions for Learning Names; and Ideas to Motivate Students
http://www.washington.edu/teaching/teaching-resources/teaching-the-first-day-of-class/

Getting Started
Getting Started [Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent, Chem. Engr. Education, 29(3), 166-167] provide helpful hints on how to prepare for the first day of class.
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Columns/Getstart.html

Getting Started: The First Week of Class
Union University's Center for Faculty Development website is titled "Getting Started: The First Week of Class" and contains the following suggestions: First Day of Class Do's and Don'ts; Learning Students' Names; Predicting Success; Some Fundamentals of Good Teaching Practice; and Student Profile
http://www.uu.edu/centers/faculty/resources/category.cfm?ID=8

Syllabus Writing 101
Penn State's Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence has resources for creating a course syllabus including a tutorial.
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/Tools/Syllabus/

Teaching Effectiveness Program
Resources from the Teaching Effectiveness program at the University of Oregon, including strategies for new teachers, instructional technology tools, and methods for improving instruction. In particular, check out "Teaching FAQs," "Teaching Large Classes," and the "Resource Exchange."
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/index.html

Teaching Goals Inventory
The Teaching Goals Inventory, developed by Thomas Angelo and Patricia Cross, is a self-assessment of instructional goals. Its purpose is threefold: (1) to help college teachers become more aware of what they want to accomplish in individual courses; (2) to help faculty locate Classroom Assessment Techniques they can adapt and use to assess how well they are achieving their teaching and learning goals; and (3) to provide a starting point for discussion of teaching and learning goals among colleagues.
http://fm.iowa.uiowa.edu/fmi/xsl/tgi/data_entry.xsl?-db=tgi_data&-lay=Layout01&-view

Teaching Ideas and Advice
The English Department at Florida State University has produced a comprehensive website on teaching freshman writing.
http://wr.english.fsu.edu/First-Year-Composition/The-Teachers-Guide

Teaching Resources
This website for the University of Minnesota system's Center for Teaching and Learning contains teaching and learning resources for faculty and TAs.
http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/teachlearn/resources/index.html

The Most Important Day: Starting Well
Delivee L. Wright of the University of Nebraska compiled practical suggestions on the Web site titled "The Most Important Day: Starting Well."
http://www2.honolulu.hawaii.edu/facdev/guidebk/teachtip/dayone.htm

Tools for Teaching and Learning
A well-organized website containing information on course design, teaching techniques and assessment strategies from the Penn State Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence.
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/Tools/

Writing a Syllabus
Howard B. Altman and William E. Cashin provide an extensive list of suggestions from the literature about what information to include in a course syllabus.
http://ideaedu.org/sites/default/files/Idea_Paper_27.pdf

Other Teaching and Learning Clearinghouses

Glencoe/McGraw Hill
The publisher Glencoe/McGraw Hill offers classroom instruction tips, downloadable checklists, rubrics and other aids, and articles on teaching at the postsecondary level.
http://www.glencoe.com/ps/teachingtoday/tiparchive.phtml/2

Handbook for Graduate Teaching Assistants
This is the University of Deleware's Handbook for Graduate Teaching Assistants. Links at the bottom of the page go to more information on a variety of topics such as preparing a learner-centered syllabus, evaluation, and teaching strategies.
http://cte.udel.edu/publications/handbook-graduate-assistants/handbook-graduate-teaching-assistants.html

Teaching Effectiveness Program at Oregon University
This site, from the Teaching Effectiveness Program at Oregon University, offers an excellent set of links with an emphasis on practical and specific suggestions for effectiveness in the classroom. Broad topics include students, hate, inclusive classroom, learning styles, oppression, white privilege, organizations
http://tep.uoregon.edu/

Student-Centered Teaching

"Novice instructors and student-centered instruction: identifying and addressing obstacles to learning in the college science laboratory."
"Novice instructors and student-centered instruction: identifying and addressing obstacles to learning in the college science laboratory." The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2(1). Winter, D., Lemons, P., Bookman, J., Hoese, W. (2001) Two biologists and two mathematicians collected data through clinical observations of 40 laboratory sections. Identifies and analyzes some problems with the implementation of student-centered instruction in introductory college science and mathematics laboratory courses. Potential problems include those associated with interactions between the instructor and individual students, interactions between the instructor and small groups of students, and the instructor's ability to monitor the learning environment. Provides practical suggestions for dealing with each category of problems.
http://josotl.indiana.edu/article/view/1590/1589

Center for the Study of College Student Retention
This site includes various resources on student retention. Clicking the the References link at the top of the page takes you to An A to Z retention/attrition reference list that was updated in 2012.
http://www.cscsr.org/

Classroom Assessment Techniques
An overview of Classroom Assessment Techniques is provided along with the characteristics of CATs, assumptions, how to begin, and suggestions for success.
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching-resources/classroom-practice/teaching-techniques-strategies/check-student-learning/

Critical Issue: Working Toward Student Self-Direction and Personal Efficacy as Educational Goals
Critical Issue: Working Toward Student Self-Direction and Personal Efficacy as Educational Goals explains that in order for student-centered teaching to work well, teachers must create opportunities for students to make decisions and solve problems on their own without being told what to do at all times.
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr200.htm

Going Cycling with Learning Styles
"Teaching Around the Cycle" is one way of describing instruction that accommodates multiple learning styles in an attempt to motivate and engage all students and to encourage them to expand their skills and abilities as widely as possible. Lisa Lim's article, "Going Cycling with Learning Styles" diagrams how a learner might start at the style within Kolb's cycle that he or she is most comfortable with and progress through the rest of the cycle. She offers helpful advice for students who need to develop their capacity to learn in other modes--questions they can ask themselves as they cycle through the stages, as well as concrete suggestions for developing each style.
http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/success/sl27.htm

Guide To College and University Service-Learning Programs
Including Links to Online Course Lists and Syllabi, by Robin J. Crews. Contains 383 program listings--125 with online course lists and 31 with online syllabi.
http://www.evergreen.loyola.edu/~rcrews/sl/academic.html

Guidelines on Learning that Inform Teaching
16 Guidelines with a toolbox of templates for implementing the guidelines. The Guidelines are a set of statements that outline a basis for the development of activities that are likely to enhance student learning - that is, they are guidelines to inform teaching.
http://www.guidelinesonlearning.com/index

Implementing Service Learning in Higher Education
Implementing Service Learning in Higher Education--by Robert Bringle and Julie Hatcher. From the Journal of Higher Education, April 1996. Includes a Comprehensive Action Plan for Service-Learning (CAPSL) developed by Campus Compact as a model for institutional change and renewal focusing on four core constituencies: the college, the students, the faculty, and the community.
http://www.compact.org/advancedtoolkit/pdf/bringle-all.pdf

Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn
Authors Diane M. Emerson, Kathryn M. Plank, and R. Neill Johnson offer effective practices for teaching. These techniques have been tried and tested in Penn State University classrooms.
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/pdf/PennStateTeacherII.pdf

National Survey of Student Engagement
This annual report discusses the factors that are key to student learning: reading and writing, preparing for class, interacting with instructors, collaborating with peers, doing community service, etc
http://nsse.iub.edu/index.cfm

Navigating the Bumpy Road to Student-Centered Instruction
In their very helpful article "Navigating the Bumpy Road to Student-Centered Instruction," Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent explore the change from a lecture-based classroom to a more student-centered learning environment
http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Resist.html

On Student-Centered Learning and Active Participation
In Part V, Section 1 there is a discussion of student-centered learning and active participation. Included are the role of the teacher, encouraging active participation, and setting expectations.
http://wr.english.fsu.edu/First-Year-Composition/The-Teachers-Guide

Reflection Activities for Use with Service Learning
"Reflection Activities for Use with Service Learning" is based on the work of Robert Bringle and Julie Hatcher (1999) as well as examples from community college faculty around the country. The activities presented here have been adapted by Diane Sloan, Miami-Dade College, and Toni S. Hartsfield, formerly of Bellevue Community College.
http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Resources/aaccprograms/horizons/Documents/reflection_3.pdf

Service Learning in Community Colleges
This AACC site on Service Learning provides many valuable resources and reports on service learning based on nearly 20 years of research.
http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Resources/aaccprograms/horizons/Pages/default.aspx

Some Ideas for Motivating Students
Robert Harris provides a list of practical ideas for motivating students. Then he compares classroom learning with playing a sport. Sports are highly motivating for the players. What do sports and classroom learning have in common? What aspects of sports can we adapt to our classrooms?
http://www.virtualsalt.com/motivate.htm

Taking Student Retention Seriously: Rethinking the First Year of College
Tinto, Vincent. Taking Student Retention Seriously: Rethinking the First Year of College. Speech presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of College Registrars and Admissions Officers, April 15, 2002, Minneapolis, MN. "Learning communities, in their most basic form, begin with a kind of co-registration or block scheduling that enables students to take courses together, rather than apart. In some cases, learning communities will link students by tying two courses together, typically a course in writing with a course in selected literature or current social problems (Linked Courses)."
http://advisortrainingmanual.pbworks.com/f/Tinto_TakingRetentionSeriously.pdf

Teaching Effectiveness Program
University of Oregon's Teaching Effectiveness Program offers a collection of Frequently Asked Questions regarding student motivation. Some examples of questions include: How do I encourage students to be active and interested? How do I deal with apathetic students? How do I deal with groups that are not functioning well together? How do I empower students?
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/faqs/motivatingstudents/motivating.html

The Theory and Practice of Transformative Learning: A Critical Review
Transformative learning, according to Mezirow, is a theory that is "partly a developmental process, but more...the process of using a priori interpretation to construe a new or revised interpretation of the meaning of one's experience in order to guide future action." See "The Theory and Practice of Transformative Learning: A Critical Review."
http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/taylor/taylor_00.pdf

Transcending Disciplines, Reinforcing Curricula: Why Faculty Teach with Service-Learning
A report based on the 2004 AACC study to identify factors that motivate faculty to include service learning in their courses.
http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Resources/aaccprograms/horizons/Documents/transcendingdisciplinesv5.pdf

What Constitutes a Good Lecture?
This article, "What Constitutes a Good Lecture?" offers an inside look at how students view lectures. By Jann Lacoss, Faculty Consultant, UVA Teaching Resource Center and Jennifer Chylack, Graduate Student Associate
http://trc.virginia.edu/resources/what-constitutes-a-good-lecture-and-what-makes-a-discussion-section-productive/

Teaching Techniques

Classroom Assessment Techniques
An overview of Classroom Assessment Techniques is provided along with the characteristics of CATs, assumptions, how to begin, and suggestions for success.
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching-resources/classroom-practice/teaching-techniques-strategies/check-student-learning/

Concept Mapping
"Concept Mapping," by Steven Hale at Georgia Perimeter College, describes the steps of constructing concept maps and give some examples as illustration.
http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~shale/humanities/composition/handouts/concept.html

Effective Use of Wait Time
This brief paper describes the benefits of wait time in the classroom and describes eight categories of wait time and how to use them.
http://district287.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=teachLearn_PREP_Talk_ProfDev_Discuss_WaitTime

Facilitating Discussion: A Brief Guide
By Katherine K. Gottschalk, Director of Freshman Writing Seminars in Cornell University's John S. Knight Writing Program, provides helpful insight on: creating rapport, encouraging participation, facilitating discussion, getting students to talk to and argue with each other, using small groups, other ideas for invigorating your class.
http://www.arts.cornell.edu/knight_institute/publicationsprizes/Facilitating_Discussion06.pdf

Intended Learning Objectives and Optimal Learning Methods
A table summarizing the efficacy of individual, competitive and collaborative learning methods in reaching specific learning objectives. Based on 122 research papers on the topic
http://www.gdrc.org/kmgmt/c-learn/types-learn.html

Office of Community Service-Learning
An example service-learning contract from the Office of Community Service-Learning at Willamette University.
http://www.willamette.edu/dept/csl/pdf/contract.pdf

Service Learning Contract
An example of a service-learning contract from a course at the University of Minnesota.
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/bran0368/wost4402/wost4402service_learning_contract.pdf

Service Learning Enrollment Form
An example service-learning contract from NorthWest Arkansas Community College.
http://www.nwacc.edu/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=afd4cdec-8a6f-48fa-85d7-05d4de1c58d3&groupId=183136

Shumer's Self-Assessment for Service Learning
Shumer's Self-Assessment for Service Learning--a self-reflective system for professionals in the service-learning and experiential learning fields. What follows is a series of instruments and analysis worksheets arranged to help individuals evaluate their current service-learning initiatives to improve and strengthen them. December, 2000 by Rob Shumer, for the Center for Experiential and Service-Learning, Department of Work, Community, and Family Education, College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota
http://www.servicelearning.org/filemanager/download/3/shumasses.pdf

Some Ideas for Motivating Students
Robert Harris provides a list of practical ideas for motivating students. Then he compares classroom learning with playing a sport. Sports are highly motivating for the players. What do sports and classroom learning have in common? What aspects of sports can we adapt to our classrooms?
http://www.virtualsalt.com/motivate.htm

Suggestions for Leading Small-Group Discussions
The article "Suggestions for Leading Small-Group Discussions" from Iowa State's Center for Teaching Excellence, outlines how and when to use small group discussions as a teaching technique
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching-resources/classroom-practice/teaching-techniques-strategies/leading-classroom-discussion/small-group-discussions/

Teaching Effectiveness Program
Resources from the Teaching Effectiveness program at the University of Oregon, including strategies for new teachers, instructional technology tools, and methods for improving instruction. In particular, check out "Teaching FAQs," "Teaching Large Classes," and the "Resource Exchange."
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/index.html

Teaching Effectiveness Program
University of Oregon's Teaching Effectiveness Program offers a collection of Frequently Asked Questions regarding student motivation. Some examples of questions include: How do I encourage students to be active and interested? How do I deal with apathetic students? How do I deal with groups that are not functioning well together? How do I empower students?
http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/faqs/motivatingstudents/motivating.html

Teaching Tips
"Teaching Tips" from Honolulu Community College provides links to resources on topics covering many of the basics of teaching: assessment techniques, communication, course design, dealing with stress, how people learn, preparing a course syllabus, preparing a lesson plan, human development, motivating students, effective questioning strategies, etc.
http://www2.honolulu.hawaii.edu/facdev/guidebk/teachtip/teachtip.htm

Tools for Teaching and Learning
A well-organized website containing information on course design, teaching techniques and assessment strategies from the Penn State Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence.
http://www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu/Tools/

Transcending Disciplines, Reinforcing Curricula: Why Faculty Teach with Service-Learning
A report based on the 2004 AACC study to identify factors that motivate faculty to include service learning in their courses.
http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Resources/aaccprograms/horizons/Documents/transcendingdisciplinesv5.pdf

Twenty Ways to Make Lectures More Participatory
Lectures play a vital role in teaching. Here are twenty ways to make lectures more participatory. Adapted from Participatory Lectures, Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, 1992.
http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/html/icb.topic58474/TFTlectures.html

What Constitutes a Good Lecture?
This article, "What Constitutes a Good Lecture?" offers an inside look at how students view lectures. By Jann Lacoss, Faculty Consultant, UVA Teaching Resource Center and Jennifer Chylack, Graduate Student Associate
http://trc.virginia.edu/resources/what-constitutes-a-good-lecture-and-what-makes-a-discussion-section-productive/